Rules and principles of relative dating
Therefore, the piece, or inclusion, must be younger than the material it is included in. Aside from single-celled bacteria, most living organism reside at or very near the Earth's surface either in continental or oceanic environments.
As these organisms die they are deposited on the surface along with all other sediments.
Then, by applying the Principle of Cross-Cutting we are able to relatively date those processes.Steno recognized that fossils represent organisms that became buried in sediment, which later turned into rock.The realization that sediments turn into rock was counter to the view that all rocks on Earth formed in a single creation event.In 1788 John Playfair came to see Hutton’s Unconformity in Inchbonny.
The unconformity consists of many vertical tilted layers of grey shale overlaid by many layers of horizontal red sandstone.131) and by Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), a French anatomist, and Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847), a French naturalist and geologist, during their work on the deposits of the Paris Basin.Brongniart was the first to use fossils to date rock strata., which states that geologic events are caused by natural processes, many of which are operating in our own time.Nicolas Steno, William Smith, Georges Cuvier, Alexandre Brongniart, and James Hutton developed the basic rules for the science of stratigraphy.